Is tilling bad for soil
The debate over till vs. no-till has been a hot topic of discussion on many gardening forums. The question is, Is tilling bad for the soil?
This blog explores the different pros and cons of both and analyzes their implications on the soils.
What is Tilling?
What is tilling? Tilling is the process of breaking up and stirring soil. Gardeners till the soil to prepare it for planting, to mix in organic matter, or to reduce the number of weeds in the area. Tilling soil helps prepare a seedbed and incorporates fertilizer, compost, and other soil amendments.
Is tilling bad for the soil
Tilling is not just an issue that affects gardeners. In fact, tilling your soil can have detrimental effects on its health.
By the same token, if done correctly, tilling can actually be beneficial. The key is knowing when to till and how much to till.
The reason your soil needs to be tilled is that it helps mix together the soil, air, and water. It’s this mix that helps your plants thrive. Tilling causes air pockets to form and water to drain in between the soil particles.
This is what helps your plants grow deep roots. Without these air pockets and water drainage, your plants will not be able to grow roots that deep.
Benefits of Tilling
Farmers and gardeners are well known for tilling their soils before planting. In fact, it is a very common practice to do. As a result of tillage, the soil is aerated, compost and fertilizer are incorporated into the soil, the soil is balanced with nutrients, and weeds are controlled
You can use a rototiller or a hand tiller to till the soil, but regardless of the technique you use, tilling your soil is a useful gardening practice all year round.
Aeration and soil balance are the two main reasons why gardeners till the soil.
Take a moment to think about all of the work you do in your garden. Transporting soil, fertilizer, or compost with a wheelbarrow is common practice. If you are digging or planting, you probably kneel down first. There’s nothing worse than stomping on the very soil that you are going to plant your plants in.
Compaction caused by all these activities can suffocate the soil, preventing plant growth. Tilling helps restore some of the lost air. The roots of your plants can reach oxygen, water, and nutrients more easily when the soil is well-aerated.
For healthier, balanced soil, tillage facilitates the penetration of fertilizer, compost, and organic matter into the ground.
Drawback of Tilling
Although tilling offers many benefits, it has some drawbacks as well. Let’s look at these issues a bit further to find out if tilling has the potential to have long-term negative effects on the environment.
Imagine that you decide to till your garden twice a year. While everything may seem great at first, things could start to go awry if you don’t take a break from tilling.
- It is possible for soil structures to be completely destroyed.
- There is a possibility that microbial activity will slow or cease entirely.
- It is possible for soil pores to be blocked, preventing water infiltration and increasing runoff.
Iowa State University research suggests that these effects are exacerbated if tillage is continued for a long period without a break. There’s also a chance of the development of a hardpan along with a complete breakdown of the soil structure.
To Till, or Not to Till?
Would you rather till your garden or try a no-till method? Your choice will really depend on your gardening goals and requirements.
The benefits of tilling for the home gardener are numerous when done properly and appropriately. In contrast, no-till gardening can prevent soil erosion and the complete breakdown of the soil’s structure.
To take advantage of both methods, you can combine them (e.g. till one season, no-till for two seasons, rinse, and repeat).
Personally, I couldn’t imagine starting a new garden bed without some form of tilling. This will allow me to plant a new crop in the garden. Second-year, I usually only give that same area a light overhaul. If you are about to start a new garden do not forget these important tips.
Power tillers are my go-to for starting a new garden bed or digging up large areas of weeds if the weeds are really out of control. I find them practical.
During the in-between years, I tend to use a lighter touch when handling the soil, only turning it over when it is necessary for the planting to complete.